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機織物概述

機織物應用非常廣泛,可用于衣著、裝飾、衛生、工業、國防等各個領域。隨著現代科學技術的進步,機織物在品種上將不斷地創新,在用途上不斷地擴大,在生產上也不斷采用新工藝、新技術,未來的應用將更加廣泛。廣義上講,由紗線按照一定的加工方法構成的片狀物叫做織物。機織物是指由相互垂直排列的兩個系統的紗線,在織機上按一定的規律交織而成的制品。機織物結構指經緯紗在織物中相互配合及交織的情況,即經緯紗在織物中所處的幾何形態。在機織物中經紗和緯紗相互交錯或彼此沉浮的規律叫做織物組織。種類繁多的織物組織構成了織物不同的花式和外觀效果。

Woven fabrics Introduction

Woven fabric is widely used in clothing, decoration, health, industry, national defense and so on.With the progress of modern science and technology, the types and use of woven fabric are continuously  innovatedand expanded respectively. The new technologies are continuously  adoptedin its production. Its futureapplication will be more and more extensive.

In a broad sense, fabric is flakes that yarn was processed with a certain processing method and the woven fabric is the production made by the two perpendicular yarns of systems, which was weaved on the loom with a certain rules.The structure of woven fabric refers to the mutual coordinating and interweaving of warp and weft yarn in the fabric, the geometry of warp and weft yarn in the fabric .The rules that warp and weft yarn interlaced or ups and downs each other in fabric is called fabric weave. The wide variety of fabric weave formed the different figure and appearance of fabric .

機織物分類

隨著紡織技術的發展,機織物組織結構的種類也越來越多。機織物中有三種基本組織:平紋組織(plain weave)、斜紋組織(twill weave)、緞紋組織(satin weave),稱為三原組織,以三原組織為基礎加以各種變化得到各種變化組織,此外還有聯合組織以及小花紋組織等,這些組織統稱為簡單組織。復雜組織指的是經緯紗中,至少有一種是由兩組或兩組以上系統的紗線組成。根據其組織結構的不同,可分為二重組織、雙層組織、毛巾組織、經緯起毛組織等。原組織為織物組織結構基本組織。 平紋組織為經、緯組織點一隔一排列而成。斜紋組織為經、緯組織點連續排列成斜線而成。緞紋組織為單獨組織點均勻分布,互不連續。三原組織的組織圖如圖 1-1 所示,其中圖 1-1(a)、(b)、(c)分別為  1/1平紋組織、2/1 斜紋組織、4/1 緞紋組織。

Woven fabrics Category

With the development of textile technology, the type of woven fabric structure is also increasing.There are three basic tissues in the woven fabric,the plain weave, the twill weave, and the satin weave, which are called Three-Elementary Weave(TEW).Based on the TEW with various changing can obtain various fancy weave.In addition, there are compound weave and huckaback weave and so on, which are called simple weaves .The complex weave refers to that in the warp and weft yarns, there must be at least one ,which is composed of two or more than two groups of system yarns.According to the difference of its organizational structure ,it can be classified into the backed weave, the double weave, the towels weave, the warp/weft burr weave, etc.

Elementary morphism weave is the basic weave of fabric structure. Plain weave is made of alternate arrangement in the warp and weft unit. Twill weave is that warp and weft unit are arranged in diagonal lines.Satin weave is that its separate weave point distributed evenly, discrete each other. The diagram of Three-Elementary Weave is shown in figure 1-1,figure 1-1 (a), (b), (c) is 1/1 plain weave, 2/1twill weave,4/1 satin weave respectively.

   

 (a)平紋組織圖   (b)斜紋組織圖     (c) 緞紋組織圖

 (a)plain weave (b)twill weave (c) satin weave


1-1三種原組織機織物組織圖

Figure 1-1Three kinds of elementary morphism weave fabric Chart

在三原組織的基礎上,根據三原組織結構特點,加以變化得到變化組織。平紋變化組織是在平紋組織的經向或緯向或經緯向同時延伸增加組織點所得到的組織。以斜紋組織為基礎變化則產生斜紋變化組織。 以緞紋組織為基礎,根據緞紋組織結構特點加以變化,得到變化緞紋組織。變化組織(organizational changes)仍具有基礎組織特征,組織圖如圖 1-2 所示。

Based on Three-Elementary, according to its structural characteristics can get fancy weaves with some changes.Plain fancy weaves is the warp or weft or warp and weft of plain weave stretch to increase weave point at the same time.Changes based on the twill weave will get twill fancy weaves.Changes based on the satin weave, according to its structural characteristics can get satin fancy weaves.Fancy weaves still has the characteristics of basic weave, weave diagram is shown as figure 1-2

     

(a)變化平紋組織圖   (b)變化斜紋組織圖     (c)變化緞紋組織圖

(a)plain fancy weaves       (b)twill fancy weaves   (c)twill fancy weaves

1-2變化組織組織圖

Figure 1-2 fancy weaves diagram

聯合組織是由兩種及兩種以上的原組織或變化組織、 用各種不同的方法聯合而成的組織,在織物表面可呈現幾何圖案或小花紋。條紋組織是較為常見的一種聯合組織, 運用兩種或幾種原組織或變化組織并列配置,使織物表面形成條紋或格子花紋的組織。如圖 1-3 所示為條紋織物的組織圖。其中圖 1-3(a)為緞紋和平紋交叉排列組合而成,而圖 1-3(b)由斜紋和斜紋交叉排列組合而成。

Compound weave is the joint of two or more than two elementary morphism weave or fancy weaves with various of different methods, presenting geometric patterns or small decorative pattern on its fabric surface.Striped weave is a common compound weave, using two or more organizations or fancy weaves to deploy in parallel,forming streaks or checked in the fabric surface.The striped weave diagram is shown in figure 1-3.Figure 1-3(a) is the satin and plain cross combination,while figure 1-3 (b) is twill and twill cross combination.

   

(a)條紋組織圖 1 (b)條紋組織圖2

(a) striped weave diagram 1  (b) striped weave diagram 2

1-3條紋組織組織圖

Figure 1-3 striped weave diagram

數據庫的描述:

1平紋,緞紋,斜紋以及變化組織:

  數據庫中的平紋組織、緞紋組織、斜紋組織和變化組織的圖片集,對應于這些機織物自動識別方法中的每一過程。首先提取圖像的亮度信息,經過中值濾波和形態學腐蝕等預處理,采用灰度投影矯正紗線偏斜完成組織點的分割?;谔荻确较蛐畔M織點進行特征提取,通過模糊 C 均值聚類算法初步分類和識別組織點。最后根據機織物組織結構周期性,統計識別結果校正誤識別點,得到正確組織結構圖。

2 條紋織物:

  條紋組織是較為常見的一種聯合組織,它由兩種及兩種以上的原組織或變化組織交叉排列而成。由于一些條紋織物是由具有相同結構參數但紋理方向不同的組織交叉排列而成,具有旋轉不變性的紋理特征提取方法不適合解決此類問題。此外掃描窗口的選擇直接影響著紋理特征的提取。數據庫中的條紋組織圖是通過掃描窗口的自動選取方法,首先利用水平和垂直方向灰度投影分割紗線,以兩根紗線為所占區域大小為窗口、單根紗線的寬度為步長對圖像進行掃描,并基于灰度共生矩陣(Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices,GLCM)對每個窗口提取特征,計算相鄰窗口之間的相關系數,通過分析相關系數曲線完成條紋織物分割,最后基于梯度直方圖的方法識別織物組織結構。

Database Description:

1. plain, satin, twill and fancy weaves:

The pictures of plain weave, satin weave , twill weave and fancy weaves in the databasecorrespond to each process of the woven fabric automatic identification method. Firstly, extract the brightness information of the image, pretreat with median filtering and morphological corrosion and so on and complete weave point segmentation using gray projection correction yarn deflection.Secondly, extract features of weave point based on the gradient direction information and preliminary classify and identify the weave point with fuzzy c means clustering algorithm. In the end, statistics the recognized results and correct the error weave point according to the periodicity of the structure of woven fabric, getting the correct chart of organizational structure .

2.striped fabric:

Striped weave is a common compound weave, which was crossly arranged by two or more then two original organizations or changed weaves. Because of cross arranging of the weave with same parameters but different grain direction, the method of rotation invariance of texture feature extraction is not suitable for solving such problems.In addition, the selection of scan window directly affects the extraction of texture feature .The acquisition of striped weave chart in the database is to scan the window with a automatic selection method.Firstly, segment the yarn with gray-level projection of horizontal and vertical direction, scan the image with through the window size of the area of two yarns the ,the step width of a single yarn, extract features of every window based on Gray Level co-occurrence Matrix(Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices, GLCM) and calculate the correlation coefficient between adjacent windows.Then complete the segmentation of stripes weave through the analysis of correlation coefficient curve.Finally, recognize the fabric structure based on the method of gradient histogram.


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